Sarcasm – cynical or skeptical under-reporting (including litotes), exaggeration, assertion of the obvious, exaggeration or irony used for the negative effect, for example to mock, criticize, ridicule, dominate, insult, or make fun of someone or something. Sarcasm can be more marked by the tone of the voice than by the words themselves. Context is crucial to appreciating sarcasm. modal verb – an additional verb that expresses the necessity or possibility from the point of view of the faith/spokesman of the writer, namely the verbs: must, wants, wants, could, could, can, can, can. Irony/Irony – in language, irony refers to the use of words that intentionally contain a meaning or interpretation that is quite different or contrary to the literal or apparent meaning of the words or statements themselves. The irony is in mind for some, not least because it implies a very deep understanding of the context and attitude of the author/spokesperson. When the irony is interpreted “at face value” or in the initially obvious sense, the reader/listener deduces a false sensory impression that incorrectly indicates that the author/spokesperson and his or her communication are insulting or senseless. Irony resembles sarcasm, although it covers a much wider range of linguistic effects that can act at a deeper and broader level. For example, the whole nature of a character, action or situation in a story can be ironic, while the notion of sarcasm is essentially limited to the tone of communication. Also, irony can be used for various effects such as comedy, dramatization, pathos, etc., while sarcasm tends to be used for quick humor, negative comments, insults, demerit, and angry comments. hypo-/hyper- – these two common prefixes mean “above/above” and “under/under” their Greek origins Huper (ober) and Hupo (under). Remembering these two simple prefixes will help understand hundreds of different concepts.
Sentence book – a common term for a dictionary of translation in a foreign language, particularly light and selective, originally and especially with regard to a small or a pocket headband that contains only generic words and phrases useful to travelers/tourists, unlike a broader translation dictionary for students of the language concerned. Figure of speech – a figure of speech is a symbolic expression; “Figure of language” is a very broad term for a word or set of words used in a written or non-written language (i.e. symbolically) that may be a cliché or metaphor or a parable, or any other expression that symbolically represents a concept or idea or an idea or any other communication.